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No. 3/1990

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No. 1/1989

Cover picture: Label from a packet of tobacco used by the firm of Hans Frestadius, Stockholm, undated (end of 18th century), from Walter Loewe: Petum optimum. A book on tobacco in Sweden ... Boras 1990, p. 91.



No. 3/1990, p. 1-16
Bernd Thier: Clay-pipe finds from the Karlsburg in Bremerhaven (1672-1680)

Excavations at the Karlsburg, a stronghold that was only in existence for a few years, were carried out in 1970 and a total of 1632 fragments of clay pipes were found. The age of the pipes, which are mostly from Gouda, can usually be determined from the shape of the bowl, the type of decoration and the marks, and corresponds to the period for which the Karlsburg stronghold was in use. Some of the pipe bowls that clearly, from their shape, date from the 1670s bear marks such as "PP" and "Justitia". Previously these particular marks were inferred to date from after 1680. Some of the finds, therefore, provide strong evidence that the ages of several Gouda marks are too young and need revising.


Clay pipes with heel; bowls show a flower-like decoration, Holland, before 1678



No. 3/1990, p. 17-20
Walter Morgenroth: A price list from the Weissenspring warehouse in Berlin

The buildings of the clay-pipe factory that was established in Berlin around 1750 by Sophie Rhau (Rauch) were bought in 1750 by Johann Mattheus Gottlob Steinhausen, a merchant. He opened a shop for clay pipes produced by the factory at Weissenspring on the River Oder. A clay-pipe price list was found in correspondence documenting a dispute between Steinhausen and Thormeyer's clay-pipe factory in Berlin. This price list gives an interesting insight into the merchant's range around 1795.

Tonpfeifen - Preisliste





No. 3/1990, p. 20-31
Henry Toms: Official decrees on the marking of clay pipes in the Lower Saxony region

Pipes often bear not only the maker's mark but also a mark intended for customs and/or tax purposes. In the 18th century several of the latter kinds of marks were made obligatory in the Lower Saxony duchies and principalities. In 1713 for example, Georg Ludwig, Elector of Brunswick-Hanover decreed that all clay pipes made in the newly established clay-pipe factory in Celle must be stamped with a mark depicting the initials "GLC" beneath a crown. In 1768, the "Hanoverian horse" mark was made obligatory for all clay pipes produced in the principality of Hanover. The mark "GR" stands for Georg Rex, and alludes to the three Electors of Hanover, who were also kings of England. It was probably introduced in 1713, and often occurs together with the maker's mark.

Pipe with crown above GLC (= Georg Ludwig Churfürst) heel mark, made in Johann Heinrich Bönckemeyer's factory in Celle, 1713-1729

Pipe with heel mark
showing a horse jumping,
Lower Saxony, 1768-1800
Pipe with heel, mark on back of bowl: GR (= Georgius Rex) above H, Lower Saxony, 18th century



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last update: 2008-06-06