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Contents of no. 5/1991

Cover picture: Label from a packet of tobacco used by the firm of Schmidt & Leibbrandt, Nürnberg, around 1829, from Elias Erasmus (Paul Otto/Hans H. Bockwitz): Alte Tabakzeichen. Berlin 1924, pl. 22, No. 1).


No. 5/1991, p. 1-14
Gerhard Ermischer: A rich find of clay pipes from Aschaffenburg

During excavations at Aschaffenburg in the area of the old deanery ("Alte Dechantei"), the residence of the dean of the ecclesiastical curia, a number of stone-built cellars, a latrine and a well were found. The latrine turned out to have been dug specially for a two-day, late-Baroque festival and was filled in immediately after it. Some of the rubbish from the feast was thrown into the latrine. More rubbish from the feast was found in the cellars; in cellar No. 3 a heap of rubbish contained 270 clay pipes.
These clay pipes are similar in shape, size and quality; they have ovoid-type bowls all marked with the Gouda coat-of-arms on the left of the heel. In addition, several different heel marks are represented: the crowned "46", the "key", "BWB", "46", and the "bundle of arrows" (on two bowls). All these except the uncrowned "46" are well known Gouda marks. Some of them are also known from other clay-pipe centres in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and particulary the Westerwald area of Germany. The stems bear inscriptions containing the name "GOUDA", although about 50 % read "GAUDA", the German spelling. The facts that some pipes have a right side mark "PM", which ist uncommon in the Netherlands, and that some variations of the crowned "46" closely resemble those from the Westerwald area suggest that the whole group of pipes are Westerwald products with faked Gouda marks. The find has been dated independently as 1740 or slightly later. Just at this time (1739-40), a special law was passed in Gouda to protect the Gouda pipemakers; only pipes made in Gouda were allowed to bear the Gouda coat-of-arms. As can be seen, once the German pipemakers started to copy the Gouda "trade mark" on their own products.

Pipe with heel showing egg-shaped bowl
and BWB heel mark, ?Holland,
between 1739 and c. 1750




No. 5/1991, p. 14 ff.
Rüdiger J.J. Articus: A clay pipe from 1866

Part of a clay pipe found in Harvestehude, Hamburg, shows a double-headed eagle on the left of the bowl and a single eagle on the right. A hand above the latter is trying to grasp the crown above the double-headed eagle. With the help of the inscription "GERMA(NIA)E PAX" on the pipe and by comparison with a similar fragment found near Copenhagen, the design on the bowl is interpreted as depicting Prussia's (single eagle) attempt to conquer Austria (double eagle). Thus the pipe shows a political theme and was clearly manufactured after the peace treaty between Prussia and Austria (1866), which marked the end of the war between the two. The pipe was produced by Gerrit and Jan Prince, Gouda.

Pipe with heel, bowl shows a crowned two-headed eagle
and GERMA[NIA]E PAX, produced in Gouda to commemorate the Treaty of Paris in 1866




No. 5/1991, p. 17 ff.
Martin Kügler: Political themes on pipe bowls - an example from 1846

Pipe bowls shaped like heads of well known persons, often with a political connection, are relatively common. However, very little is known about the functional significance of smoking a pipe whose design has a political connection. One clear example is provided by a ban which in 1846 the government of the kingdom of Bavaria put on pipes portraying the theologian Johann Czerski; here, the functional significance of smoking a particular pipe is obvious - in this case the smoker identified himself with the ideas of Czerski.
It ist not altogether impossible that the reason for smoking a pipe portraying a certain person was opposition towards that person. The reasons why "political pipes" were smoked as well as the cultural and political atmosphere in which they were smoked can only be reconstructed from detailed information on the pipes, the persons portrayed and the historical background.






Pipe-clay figure of St Anthony found in the moat of Lüdinghausen castle

No. 5/1991, p. 19-28
Bernd Thier: A pipe-clay figure from the late Middle Ages found in Lüdinghausen

A small pipe-clay figure found in Lüdinghausen is interpreted on the basis of characteristic features and associated objects as a 15th or 16th century model of St. Anthony. A woodcut dating from the late Middle Ages shows the veneration of St. Anthony, who is receiving a gift of what is probably a similar small clay figure. Such religious figures made of pipe clay are not uncommon. Comparable figures of St. Anthony have been found in the Rhineland and the Netherlands. However, they all differ in certain respects from this figure, and although numerous places have been identified where these figures were made, it is not yet possible to say with any certainty where this particular figure was produced. It is interesting to note that many of the production centres of these clay figures are also known to have been (later) clay-pipe production centres. It is suggested that this is no mere coincidence.







No. 5/1991, p. 28 f.
Rüdiger J.J. Articus: Smoking and tobacco-pipe manufacture in Schleswig-Holstein - an amendment

Further to the information on clay-pipe manufacture in Itzehoe given in KnasterKOPF No. 2/1990, p. 30-33, it is now known that two clay-pipe makers were active there in 1837, but their production appears to have been relatively modest.


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