KnasterKOPF
En français

Deutsche Ausgabe

Nederlands


No. 19/2007

No. 18/2005

No. 17/2004

No. 16/2003

No. 15/2002

No. 14/2001

No. 13/2000

No. 12/1999

No. 11/1998

No. 10/1997

No. 9/1997

No. 8/1996

No. 7/1995

No. 6/1992

No. 5/1991

No. 4/1991

No. 3/1990

No. 2/1990

No. 1/1989


Contents of no. 8/1996

Ralph Röber:
Clay pipes from Constance

Andreas Wilts:
Strong tobacco. Tobacco consumption and laws prohibiting its use in Constance in the 17th and 18th centuries

Michael Schmaedecke:
The status of clay-pipe research in Switzerland - an initial overview

Martin Kügler:
The market for Westerwald clay pipes in southern Germany, France, Switzerland, and northern Italy at the beginning of the 19th century

Lutz Jansen:
The tobacco trade in Vogtland, Saxony. Report on a remarkable ceramic find from Reichenbach

Martin Kügler:
Report on the 9th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research held in Constance on 6 and 7 May 1995

Notice

Book reviews

Recent publications

 

 

Cover picture: Picture of a Swiss tobacco smoker from Jacob Ziegler: TABAC, Von dem gar heilsamen Wundtkraut/NICOTIANA, ... Zürich 1616, p. 8.

 
back
 

 

Reliefpfeife mit Kopf als männliches Gesicht

zoom

No. 8/1996, p. 1-44
Ralph Röber: Clay pipes from Constance

The clay pipes from Constance cover a period of about 250 years. During this time span, not only their shape underwent changes but also their provenance. In the 17th century most of the clay pipes appear to have been produced by pipe makers who had settled relatively locally. In addition there are a few imported pipes from the Neckar-Rhine confluence area and from the Netherlands. During the course of the 18th century the local factories seem to have completely disappeared. The pipes from this period display a high degree of uniformity; a large proportion are inferred to originate from Westerwald. The 18th century clay pipes also display an increase in abundance. Amongst the pipe finds from archaeological excavations in Constance there are seven 17th century pipe bowls and eighteen dating from the 18th century. We see a similar pattern amongst pipes found in the fields on the Tägermoos, i.e. five fragments of 17th century pipes and twelve from the 18th century. There are many pipe bowls which cannot be exactly identified and are quite likely to belong to the latter period.
The 19th century pipes comprise a fairly heterogeneous collection indicating scattered sources of supply. The pipes from Westerwald can be identified with reasonable certainty; similarly those from France are moderately easy to recognize. One Austrian-made pipe was found. Unfortunately the majority of pipes are still unidentified as regards their place of manufacture.   

Eighteenth century clay pipes from the Brückengasse, Konstanz

back

 

     
No. 8/1996, p. 45-50
Andreas Wilts: Strong tobacco. Tobacco consumption and laws prohibiting its use in Constance in the 17th and 18th centuries

The first mention of tobacco as a commodity in the books of the "Konstanzer Kaufhaus" (the Constance General Stores) found during archives research is from 1633. The consumption of tobacco in one form or another became increasingly popular; numerous and repeated prohibition orders in Constance (1670 and 1675) and in other towns on and near Lake Constance did not succeed in stopping its spread. At the end of the 17th century tobacco smoking was not only widespread, but, as several sources describe, was popular with all classes and age groups (including children), as well as with both sexes. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, tobacco was grown locally for sale, and around 1764-66 the first factory to produce smokers' tobacco and snuff was established. Tobacco growing, however, was not altogether successful and did not achieve any great commercial importance.


back

 

 

 

 

Clay-pipe bowl
displaying four faces,
provenance unknown,
mid 17th century

No. 8/1996, p. 50-61
Michael Schmaedecke: The status of clay-pipe research in Switzerland - an initial overview

As early as the beginning of this century, clay-pipe finds were objects of intensive study in Switzerland; however, they were erroneously assigned to ancient Greek or Roman times or even prehistoric times. This material, which in most cases is now only available as figures in publications, has not yet been restudied with a view to reinterpreting it. It is only relatively recently that clay pipes have begun to receive the attention they deserve as archaeological finds; however, no detailed work has been done yet.
A preliminary analysis of the published reports on clay pipes found in Switzerland shows that, apart from imports from the Netherlands, clay pipes were also obtained from Frankenthal at quite an early date (about 1650). In the 18th century, pipes were increasingly imported from Westerwald. This particular trade will form the subject of a future study. Little is known so far about the origin of stub-stemmed pipes, which might have come from France and from the Near East.

  

"Rauracher-Amazone",
woodcut, 19th century

back

 

No. 8/1996, p. 61-79
Martin Kügler: The market for Westerwald clay pipes in southern Germany, France, Switzerland, and northern Italy at the beginning of the 19th century

Around 1800, the Westerwald pipemakers' export trade down the Rhine declined rapidly as a consequence of the wars of revolution and as a result of the high import and transit duties levied by the Netherlands. The Westerwald pipemakers were, however, successful in expanding trade with the south, and Switzerland developed into an important export market. Two account books from 1802-1806 and 1826-1830 give exact sales figures and names of customers in southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, and France.
Preliminary evaluation of these sales statistics shows up the sometimes quite sudden changes in the market. The account books also provide information about the organisation of the shops that sold clay pipes, about how orders were obtained, the transport routes, and the different pipe models. The names of the various models mentioned in the account books rarely give any idea of what the pipes really looked like. However, pipes and pipe bowls bearing a portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte are identifiable; sales figures for these particular pipes and the countries that they were exported to are quoted for the period between 1826 and 1830.

Pipe bowls showing portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte, taken from the catalogue of the firm Müllenbach & Thewald, Höhr, 1830s

 

back

 

No. 8/1996, p. 80-87
Lutz Jansen: The tobacco trade in Vogtland, Saxony. Report on a remarkable ceramic find from Reichenbach

Excavations carried out on a cesspit yielded a piece of a very large clay pipe bowl (height of complete bowl 11 cm). The pipe bowl bears the face of a man with a moustache. The design reminds one of the "Jonas and the whale" pipes, but the face is not directed towards the smoker of the pipe; it is on one side of the pipe bowl. Small holes, which were drilled after the pipe had been fired, enabled the pipe to be hung up. It is therefore likely that the bowl is part of a presentation pipe or an advertisement which was once hung up inside or outside a shop, perhaps an apothecary's shop, to draw customers' attention to the sale of pipes and tobacco. The age of the pipe is not certain (around 1700 ?) and it is not known where it was made, although it is unlikely to be an import from the Netherlands.

back

 

No. 8/1996, p. 87-90
Martin Kügler: Report on the 9th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research held in Constance on 6 and 7 May 1995

Altogether 24 people attended the meeting, which was held in Constance at the kind invitation of the Constance branch of the Baden-Württemberg State Archaeological Museum. The extensive collection of clay-pipes found in Constance was described by R. Röber, and put into historical perspective by A. Witts, who gave a paper on the history of tobacco consumption around Lake Constance (Knasterkopf No. 8/1996, p. 1-44 and 45-50, respectively). M. Schmaedecke gave the first account of clay-pipe finds from Switzerland, and M. Kügler gave an account of the export of Westerwald clay pipes to SW Germany and Switzerland at the beginning of the 19th century (Knasterkopf No. 8/1996, p. 50-61 and p. 61-79, respectively). W. Morgenroth presented a paper on the competition between wooden pipes and clay pipes, E. Reiff gave an account of clay pipes found in mine dumps in the Harz Mountains (Knasterkopf No. 7/1995, p. 50-63) and Lutz Libert showed a historical video film about tobacco growing in Uckermark.

 
back


Home
KnasterKOPF
Society
Sitemap
Search
Contact us
Impressum

last update: 2008-06-06