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Contents of no. 9/1997

Cover picture: Label from a packet of tobacco used by Gebroders Renkrib, Amsterdam, dated 1829, from Elias Erasmus (Paul Otto/Hans H. Bockwitz): Alte Tabakzeichen. Berlin 1924, pl. 46, No. 1).



Martin Kügler:
Report on the 10th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research held in Hamburg-Harburg on 4 and 5 May 1996

Rüdiger Articus:
How clay pipes came to the Lüneburg Heath area

Martin Kügler:
The importance of Hamburg as a place of transshipment for clay pipes from the Westerwald in the 18th and 19th century

Teresa Witkowska:
The Prussian clay-pipe factories at Rostin and Sborovsky in present-day Poland. Report on archaeological research

Holger Haettich:
Marek Parol - a present-day Polish pipe maker

Nina Surabian/Martin Kügler:
The history of clay-pipe making in St. Petersburg

Book reviews


 

 
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No. 9/1997, p. 1-4
Martin Kügler: Report on the 10th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research
held in Hamburg-Harburg on 4 and 5 May 1996


The meeting was attended by 43 members and took place in the Helms Museum in Hamburg-Harburg at the invitation of the Hamburg Museum for Archaeology and the History of Harburg. The lectures given by J. Claußnitzer, E. Först, and R. Articus dealt with the archaeology of Hamburg and clay pipes found in the city of Hamburg and its surroundings (Knasterkopf No. 9/1997, p. 4-44). M. Kügler gave an account of the export of Westerwald clay pipes abroad (Knasterkopf No. 9/1997, p. 45-58). T. Witkowska reported on the clay-pipe factories in Rostin and Sborovsky, and H. Haettich gave a lecture on Marek Parol, a Polish clay-pipe maker (Knasterkopf No. 9/1997, p. 58-68 and 68-72, respectively). N. Surabian provided the first account of clay pipe making in St. Petersburg (Knasterkopf No. 9/1997, p. 73-85). An important discovery was described by G. Almeling: the clay-pipe factory of Chr. Casselmann in Hannoversch Münden. The excursion visited the Reemtsma History of Tobacco Collection and the private collection belonging to Gerd Jansen.

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Pipe with double-cone shaped bowl, showing the "orb" heel mark and "fleur-de-lis" stem marks, Gouda, first half of 17th century

 

No. 9/1997, p. 4-44
Rüdiger Articus: How clay pipes came to the Lüneburg Heath area

It is shown from written sources that clay-pipe smoking was known in Harburg shortly before 1600, and by 1630 had gained general acceptance in country areas. On the basis of studies of a large number of clay-pipe localities, it can be demonstrated that, since the end of the 17th century, smokers in Hamburg and in the towns on the Lüneburg Heath were adequately supplied with pipes imported from the Netherlands. In contrast, in the small towns and in rural districts, most clay pipes smoked came from German production sites in Lower Saxony and northern Hessen. The author deals with some early Dutch pipes and particulary with finds marked "SAPPFENBERG" from an unknown German manufacture, as well as a number of other pipes marked with the name of the pipe maker, e.g. Johann Hartmann Iser in Hildesheim, Johann Henrich Christoph Bosse in Walbeck and Christian Casselmann in Grossalmerode and 1772-1776 in Hannoversch Münden.


Pipe with heel, showing a rosette on both sides of the bowl, Holland, end of 17th century

 

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Ausschnitt: Arbeitssituation in einer Pfeifenfabrik, Baumbach um 1910/20

Working ina pipe factory, Baumbach, around 1910/1920

No. 9/1997, p. 45-58
Martin Kügler: The importance of Hamburg as a place of transshipment for clay pipes from the Westerwald in the 18th and 19th century

On account of the very high Dutch import and transit duties introduced around 1800, the flourishing trade enjoyed by the Westerwald pipe makers during the 18th century almost came to a stop. However, as late as 1850, a vigorous export trade with countries in northern Europe and overseas commenced, which was conducted through export companies in Hamburg. Shipping agents such as the Thomae brothers acted on behalf of both the export companies and the pipe makers in the Westerwald. These activities are documented in detail in letters and orders addressed to the clay-pipe factory of Wilhelm Klauer in Baumbach between 1880 and 1887. The agents also fulfilled the function of a market observer and gave the pipe maker useful tips on new pipe design.

Briefkopf der Tonpfeifenfabrik Wilhelm Klauer Söhne in Baumbach, um 1900

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Arbeitszeugnis der Tonpfeifenmanufaktur in Rostin

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No. 9/1997, p. 59-68
Teresa Witkowska: The Prussian clay-pipe factories at Rostin and Sborovsky in present-day Poland. Report on archaeological research

In the early 1750s, pipe factories were etablished by merchants in Rostin and Sborovsky. Apart from archive material, extensive finds were made during the 1989-90 excavations, and in Sborovsky one of the four buildings of the clay-pipe factory is still in existence. The excavations in Rostin were carried out by the provincial museum in Gorzów Wlkp./Landsberg. The results of the excavations in Sborovsky, which were done by the maritime museum in Gdañsk/Danzig, have not yet been published. In spite of this, initial information is available. Clay-pipe fragments from the two towns document the fact that in particular the pipe bowls and marks are modelled on those from the Netherlands; however, independent designs are also present. This is true not only of the designs, but especially of the numerous marks, which differ from factory to factory as well as within individual factories. The inscriptions on the pipe stems provide an infallible record of the place in which they were manufactured.

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No. 9/1997, p. 68-72
Holger Haettich: Marek Parol - a present-day Polish pipe maker

M. Parol has been producing clay-pipes on a part-time basis in Przemsyl, E. Poland, for the last four years. He uses only red-firing clay and so far has produced about 50 different designs, some of which are taken from pipes made by the well-known Gambier pipe factory in Givet, France. In addition Parol makes his own designs, produced in plaster moulds, depicting a variety of objects including "portraits" of important historical personalities.

Portrait pipes of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor Franz Joseph and Richard Wagner

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No. 9/1997, p. 73-85
Nina Surabian/Martin Kügler: The history of clay-pipe making in St. Petersburg

The ban on tobacco smoking in Russia dated 1634 was at last relaxed in the time of Czar Peter I within the scope of the systematic Europeanisation of Russia. Thus, finds of clay pipes dating from the 17th century are rare and only occur in places where foreigners settled. From 1718 onwards, however, regular shipments of clay pipes from the Netherlands (Gouda) to Russia can be documented. The first Russian clay pipes were produced in 1724 by the pipe and tile factory in Moscow under the supervision of a Dutch pipe maker. In St. Petersburg production began in 1744 and can be documented until 1849. Several examples of Russian clay pipes are described, which show a close affinity with those imported from the Netherlands.

 
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last update: 2008-06-06