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Contents of no. 13/2000

Cover picture: "De tabakdrinker". Woodcut from an anonymous booklet "Een koorte beschrijvinge van het wonderlicke Kruit Tobacco." Rotterdam 1623.



From the editor

Martin Kügler:
Report on the 13th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research held in Einbeck on 1-2 May 1999

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann:
Report on the first meeting of the study group on decorations on clay-pipe stems, held in Görlitz on 25 & 26 February 2000

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann:
Clay pipes in Leipzig - second preliminary report on finds made since 1990

Maren Weidner:
Clay-pipe finds from Maes near Maasholm

Rüdiger Articus:
Clay pipes from the outskirts of a city - an excavation in Schloss-Strasse in Hamburg-Harburg

Alice Kaltenberger:
Clay pipes from Kniepass Castle in the Unken district, near Lofer, Salzburg

Notice

Book reviews

Recent publications

 
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No. 13/2000, p. 2-6
Martin Kügler: Report on the 13th meeting of the German Society for Clay-Pipe Research held in Einbeck on 1-2 May 1999

Altogether 42 participants attended the meeting, which was held in Einbeck at the kind invitation of Einbeck town and at the initiative of A. Heege, who gave a detailed account of clay pipes found in Einbeck. M. Seeliger dealt with documentary evidence on the history of clay-pipe making in Holzminden. G. Murken talked about tobacco growing and the tobacco trade in southern Lower Saxony and U. Beck gave a paper on customs in which clay pipes were used. R. Articus and M. Weidner reported on clay pipes found in Hamburg and Maasholm (Knasterkopf No. 13/2000, p. 43-54 and p. 29-42). L. Libert reported on progress made on the Vierraden Tobacco Museum Project. R. Kluttig-Altmann's paper on new results from work on clay pipes found in Leipzig, as well as his ideas on a systematic classification of rolled-on pipe-stem ornamentation was generally welcomed and much discussed (Knasterkopf No. 13/2000, p. 17-10 and 10-28). The excursion visited Uslar Museum to examine the collection of objects connected with clay pipes and clay-pipe making, and then the Klett-Drechsler pottery at Fredelsloh.

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No. 13/2000, p. 7-10
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann: Report on the first meeting of the study group on decorations on clay-pipe stems, held in Görlitz on 25 & 26 February 2000

The eight participants at this meeting succeeded in establishing a basic structure for a systematic classification of hand-impressed stem decorations. The aim is to develop classification guide-lines which not only give the different types of decorations different names, but also arranges them logically into groups. The ideas explained by R. Kluttig-Altmann in his paper given at Einbeck in 1999 were taken as the basis. The first concrete results of the meeting were that the participants decided on a nomenclature that involved giving numbers to the different types of decoration. The entire spectrum of different decorations was subdivided on the basis of the method used to apply them to the pipe stem. The type of decoration engraved inside a pipe mould was left out of consideration for the time being. The hand-impressed decorations were subdivided into single embossed motifs, rolled-on decoration, spiral grooves, and a type of decoration made by pressing the stem between two fingers. All the different varieties in each of these groups can now be collected and assigned type numbers. At a later date, when the classification has been satisfactorily completed, it is planned to publish the method for the benefit of those working on pipe stems with hand-impressed decorations.

 

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Detail

Detail: "owl" heel mark

 

 

 

 

No. 13/2000, p. 10-28
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann: Clay pipes in Leipzig - second preliminary report on finds made since 1990

The systematic description of clay pipes found in the central part of Leipzig since 1990 is continued from Knasterkopf, No. 12 (1999), p. 74-82. In this account 199 identifiable fragments from nine different excavations are described. Particular attention is paid to pipe-bowl shapes and types of decoration that were not included in the first report.
A considerable number of pipe fragments found date from the 17th century. They comprise 30% of the total number of pipes and 40% of the decorations and marks. Hand-stamped and hand-rolled decorations predominate, and only one example of a pipe stem, part of a Jonah-and-the-whale pipe, with a decoration that was engraved in the mould, occurs amongst the finds described. There are many different examples of the products of Gouda pipemakers among the rich variety of marked pipes.

The new material provides more evidence to show that clay pipes were used in Leipzig before 1650. Very many of the finds date from the 18th century. There are only a few examples of pipes made in the area around Leipzig ("WILLE" in Grimma and "LASPE" in Altenburg or Waldenburg); the large majority of pipe finds are genuine Dutch pipes from Gouda, or copies of Gouda pipes. By far the most common among the named pipes are those bearing the name "VERZIJL", the Gouda family of pipemakers; however, some of these were manufactured at Grimma in Saxony, as it is documented that the name "VERZIJL" was allowed to be used in Grimma. Undoubted 19th and 20th century pipe fragments are rare, merely a few ribbed and heel-less pipes and one freemasons pipe. The systematic description of these finds will be continued and will involve statistical analysis.      


Pipe with heel, double-cone bowl shape and "owl" heel mark; probably Gouda 1650-1660

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No. 13/2000, p. 29-42
Maren Weidner: Clay-pipe finds from Maes near Maasholm

Since the 1970s, diving expeditions at the mouth of the Schlei estuary near Maasholm in Schleswig-Holstein have repeatedly returned with archaeological finds, including a total of 347 clay-pipe fragments. The time span reflected by the clay pipes is closely comparable with the period for which the village of Maes was inhabited (about 1640-1701). Clay pipes appeared in the area a few years earlier (around 1625) than is suggested by evidence from written documents. The date the village was abandoned (1701) is documented in writings but the clay pipes provide no reliable date. Certainly, 18th century pipes do occur, but only locally, since the site where they were found under the water does not represent a single group of finds.
The quality of the finds is poor, and the marks and details of the finish are hardly recognis-able, even on those examples that can be evaluated.

 

Pipe with heel, bowl shows a king and queen in relief,
with the letters WK and KM, respectively

Especially expensive pipes are unlikely to have been used in this small community, a reflection of the rural conditions. In this context, the abundance of pipes used by such a small population is somewhat surprising. However, it might be a reflection of the good trade relationships which may have existed via the Schlei and Schleswig. These finds from near the abandoned village of Maes provide us with an insight into rural smoking habits. The pipes are of a poorer quality than those found in excavations in towns. However, the quantity of pipes found at Maes suggests that the inhabitants´ financial situation was reasonably stable.

 
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No. 13/2000, p. 43-54
Rüdiger Articus: Clay pipes from the outskirts of a city - an excavation in Schloss-Strasse in Hamburg-Harburg

The clay pipes found during an excavation in Schloss-Strasse in Harburg all date from the middle of the 18th century except for one. One might have expected to find older and younger pipes since the excavation penetrated down to the 14th century level. Possibly this has some connection with the relatively short period of existence of a public house next door to the mill, although the history of this public house is not known for certain. The clay-pipe finds are, in about equal quantities, of Dutch and German origin, a feature that has not been observed before in excavations in Harburg. Normally, Dutch pipes are predominant in finds in Harburg.




Pipe with heel, bowl shows coat of arms of the town of Batavia and the United East India Company (VOC), made by Franz Verzyl in Gouda around 1750


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No. 13/2000, p. 54-82
Alice Kaltenberger: Clay pipes from Kniepass Castle in the Unken district, near Lofer, Salzburg

The finds from the castle on the Kniepass pass near Unken represent the first large suite of pipes from Austria to be described in scientific literature. Most of the pipes are heeled but a few are round-bottomed, i.e. heelless. Most of them have a double-conical shape, characteristic of the second half of the 17th century. Later in the 17th century the pipes became larger and the bowl was more oblique to the stem. A relatively large proportion of the pipes are glazed, not unsually for pipes of the 17th century. Some pipes have a plain colour glaze as well as a spatter pattern, which is known to have been a characteristic type of pattern on ceramic ware from Oberösterreich, Salzburg and SE Bavaria and is reminiscent of secondary glaze in local workshops. Only two marked pipe bowls with heels and two stems possess a fine, pale coloured, well polished surface, a fact that could well indicate that they originate from Holland. The pipes were obviously valued considerably by the soldiers stationed at the castle; this is demonstrated by various repairs on some pipes, including a metal sleeve to reconnect two fragments of a stem. Find complexes with similar composition and similar objects have been described from Freiburg, Breisach, Konstanz and Passau.
Pipe with heel, bowl shows two large letters in relief
(E and G), German, around 1680/90

Green-glazed clay pipe, bowl shows floral decoration,
second half of 17th century


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last update: 2008-06-06