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No. 16 / 2003

The main topic of this volume is

the clay-pipe manufacturing in the middle of Germany


and You will find in it most of the lectures of the 16th session of the German Society for Clay Pipe Research, as held from 1 to 4 May 2002 in Grimma. Furthermore, this volume contains large analyses of clay-pipe findings as well as an increased number of international essays about clay pipes. Information concerning current conventions and novelties round it all off.

  Titelbild Band 16

 

From the Research


Andreas Heege:
Clay pipes from Einbeck, Lower Saxony

Michael Schmaedecke:
Floral decor pipes with mentions of manufacturers found in the southern upper Rhine

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler:
Things are moving in Saxony - Towards emancipation of German research

Gerda Standke:
Clay pipes - Pipe clay. Towards a geological history of raw material

Marita Pesenecker:
Clay pipes production in Grimma

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann:
Clay pipes in Leipzig - (Provisional) Conclusion of a survey.
A very early pipemaker in Leipzig


Gerd Mattuschka:
Pipemaker's shops in Leisnig

Bernd Standke:
About pipemaker's shops in Waldenburg (Altstadt)

Walter Morgenroth:
Johann Friedrich Böttger and the creation of his Meissen tobacco pipes manufacture

Gisela Murken:
Cultivation of tobacco and tobacco trade in southern Lower Saxony

Jorge Kulemeyer:
Smoking pipes from the early Pottery of the archaeological discovery site Moralito, Argentina

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler/Henry Toms:
International terminology for clay pipe research. Part I: English-German



New Finds

Gunnar Möller:
An interesting Stralsunder finding - clay pipe stems as plastering undercoat

Daniel Schulz:
Smoking - No Smoking. Pipe-smoker in the Schloss Ludwigsburg, Württemberg

Maren Weidner:
Clay pipe finds from the Reichenstraße in Hamburg

Wojciech Siwiak:
Pipe finds of the 17th and 18th centuries from archeological sites in the area of Bydgoszcz (Bromberg)

Natascha Mehler:
Old and new about tobacco and tobacco pipes in Iceland

Richard Gartley:
German short clay pipes from excavations in the USA

Martin Kügler:
The certificate of Johann Wilhelm Dorn in 1777

Natascha Mehler:
A story about the several uses of tobacco

Heinz-Peter Mielke:
Notes about the production of clay pipes in Veneto

 

Recent Publications

Book review, Bibliography


Notice

Ongoing projects and scientific termination works

Communications and questions



Knasterkopf Volume 16/2003

208 pages format DIN A4 in German language English summaries in the Net
price 26,00 Euro in subscription 21,00 Euro always + post and package

Ordering: only at editor Martin Kügler

 
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No. 16/2003, p. 11-68
Andreas Heege: Clay pipes from Einbeck, Lower Saxony

By 1285 fragments from 30 places of discovery above all 225 pipe bowls and/or bowl fragments are valuable, from which 100 carry readable marks. The typologies for pipe bowls and stem ornaments, developed for the Netherlands, can be confirmed by dating adjacent findings. In Einbeck however a type of pipe with small heel is numerously represented. It is still to be clarified whether this type is only a regional peculiarity from the first half of the 18th century or whether a separate type can be defined, which stands between the basis types 2 and 3.
For the early phase of the clay pipes, i.e. the first half 17th century, the origin of the few heads and fragments is uncertain. Only two heads from late 17th century carry marks, which probably refer to Netherlands provenance. By a third of the fragments from early 18th century we have clearly Netherlands marks near to marks of unidentified German and Hessian manufacturers.

 



Pfeifenköpfe aus Einbeck

Selection of bowls from Einbeck, 18th century, Dutch and German provenance
Fersen-, Boden- und Innenmarken

Hiel-, bottom- and innnermarks of various Dutch and German makers on Einbeck pipes
 
Beside numerous Netherlands, predominantly probably Gouda products, a larger number of pipes of manufacturers from the neighbouring Hildesheim and Hardegsen are present starting from 1740. Pipes from the period around 1750 also show a large variety of circularly attached stamps and diagonally fluted stems.
Clay pipes from Uslar inundate the Einbecker market after 1769. For other pipe manufacturers from Hameln, Hannoversch Münden, Grossalmerode and the Westerwald only a small outlet remains open. Due to the Einbecker finds, for the first time the names of Uslarer pipemakers can be linked with certain "horsemarks".
The Uslarer production seems also in late 18th and early 19th century to have dominated the Einbecker market. Two round bottom pipes from the second half of the 18th century are decorated with coats of arms and watchwords of Hannoversch and Braunschweig. Also products of the only short term Casselmann production from Hannoversch-Münden are attested.
Although multicolored glazed clay pipes from the 17th and early 18th century from surrounding places are well known, there is nothing of the kind in Einbeck. It becomes clear from the Einbecker finds that the typical Netherlands relief pipes of the 18th century obviously do not reach the Einbecker market. It remains also unclear why e.g. pipes from the Braunschweiger area and/or the east and south Harz did not reach Einbeck either.
Clay pipes were purchased and smoked for the last time for nostalgic reasons on the occasion of the neighbourhood celebration of 1936.

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No. 16/2003, p. 69-87
Michael Schmaedecke: Floral decor pipes with mentions of manufacturers found in the southern upper Rhine

A classification of clay pipes, discussed among experts already for a long time, is however not tackled with reference to the small quantity of yet acquired evidences. On the basis of floral décor clay pipes found in the southern upper Rhine, certain types are assigned and designated to individual manufacturers. These designations should make it possible to approach the types of pipes found in the future, and to assign them to already known collections.

The classification understands itself as work suggestion, which still must be refined by more exact investigation of the original material.
The elements of the ornaments of the pipes manufactured into the 1660er to 1680er years in the area Mannheim/Frankenthal resemble themselves in strong measure, so that for the production of the pipe forms a small workshop circle or also only one metalworking workshop can be accepted. The manufacturers sold the forms to the pipemakers, who possibly put themselves on it their names and the data of the manufacture place and year or let this work done by little experienced persons. Beside new forms second hands ones were also sold.

 
Pfeifenstiel
Pipe stem of the "M.Kesselhum 1"type, Mannheim 1681


Pfeifenkopf

Bowl of the " Hans Minch 1" type, Frankenthal, 1660/70
 

Beside the native market some Mannheim/Frankenthaler pipemakers supplied possibly also different regions, whereby the southern upper Rhine for some represented an important area of distribution. On this matter, it must be stated however that it is not certain, whether this export really took place. We must also consider the possibility that the founded pipes were brought here by consumers such as travellers and in particular soldiers, who had supplied themselves in the manufacture area.
Beside the native market some Mannheim/Frankenthaler pipemakers supplied possibly also other regions, whereby the southern upper Rhine for some represented an important area of distribution. It must be stated however that it is not certain whether this export really took place. We must consider the possibility hat the pipes came there with consumers such as travellers and in particular soldiers, who had supplied themselves in the manufacture area.


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No. 16/2003, p. 88-98
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler: Things are moving in Saxony - Towards emancipation of German research

In the development of the clay pipe research in Germany important progress shows up. The initial dependence on the foreign research yielded straight in the last two to three years to a strong self-sufficiency. The development shows up particularly clearly by the example of Saxony where also as a result of the conference of the German Society for Clay Pipe Research in 2002 many new aspects arose.


Pfeifen des Görlitzer Typs
Pipes of the Görlitz type, variations 1 and 2, made in the Oberlausitz, 2nd half of the 17th century, with annexed stem
 


There was in east Saxonia in the 17th century in so far not yet accurately determined places an independently developed technology, which differs in principle from the commonly accepted mode of production by means of two-piece forms. At current new finds, the following technology can be stated: manual decoration of the heads, separate forming out of stem and bowl and their subsequent building up and subsequent bending of the stem after the assembly. The proof is completely new that clay pipe bowls were turned on potter's wheels in order to then set the separately rolled stem. In addition the number of finds shows that it concerned, despite clear quality differences compared with the form technology, a successful method exercised over many years and decades.
Thus a transfer of technology from the Netherlands and possibly different German stopovers via travelling workers is excluded. The new technology developed due to the strong local and regional demand for clay pipes, despite certain restrictions regarding effectiveness and quality, to maintain ground over longer time and to supply a regional or even supraregional market.
For the first time it is also proven by the observations of the pieces that potters manufactured clay pipes by their own handicraft technology. Thus various archives referring to the connection of both handicrafts are supported. Therefore increased attention must be paid in the future to the personnel relations between both handicrafts and/or the identity of persons.

Clay-pipemaker's shop were in the 17th and the 18th centuries far more frequent in Saxony than so far accepted. To the 15 places known so far we must add Herrnhut (?), Leipzig, Meißen, Meuselwitz and we can expect other informations.
Netherlands imported goods are to so far smaller extent to be estimated than previously postulated. Rather must be proceeded more strongly than so far from local/regional production. In the 17th century, these products differ clearly, though partially, on a typological point of view, from the imported pipes, whereas in the 18th and 19th century the Gouda example is imitated to the perfection.
The emancipation of the German clay pipe research pointed out in Saxony concerns thus archaeological, historical, technological, typological and methodical ranges. Instead of the pure collecting and overall assignment of the fragments it is today possible to regard the pieces on a regionally differentiated way and also in a superordinated context. Now the research opinion of the dominance of the Netherlands clay-pipemaker's shops and of the "supplying monopoly", which can be revised for Saxony, can also be questioned for other Lands of the Federal Republic.

Durchstechen des Rauchkanals

Threading of the stembore on an ordinary pipe, entirely made in a mould, with right angle and straight line.

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No. 16/2003, p. 99-104
Gerda Standke: Clay pipes - Pipe clay. Towards a geological history of raw material

The emergence and spreading of clays are bound to certain geological conditions, which were effective particularly in the Tertiary period. In the Saxonian area, clay arises particularly at the southern edge of the Tertiary formations spreading in relative high situations, where it can be won near the surface partly in pits, partly in mines, or opencast often in connection with other raw materials (brown coal, gravelly sands). Within the clay occurrences certain varieties can occur, which are particularly suitable for the production of clay pipes. Those are predominantly fine, relatively fat and white-burning clays. In the 18th century, the Altstadtwaldenburger pipe makers preferred usually the "pipe clay" from the nearby Frohnsdorf in the Thuringian Principality of Altenburg, but from time to time they bought from the about 40 km removed Grimma area.



 
Karte

Tertiary geological area (north west of Saxony and east of Thuringia) with large clay layers and pipemaking sites

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No. 16/2003, p. 105-112
Marita Pesenecker: Clay pipes production in Grimma

Clay pipes production began in Grimma in the 17th century. The pipemakers bought from Groß- and Kleinpösig, where the clay pits were on the lands of the farmers. The clay price was about 2 Taler and 14 groschens for a tun and the indicated annual consumption was 2000 hundredweights by the end of the 18th century. Sporadically, the Waldenburger pipemakers provided themselves with clay from Pöhsig.
The number of pipemakers varied. Into the 1740er years, there were three, later between four and six masters, which employed further persons (associate, apprentices). Heinrich Neumann achieved a dominating position within the pipemakers of Grimma and indicated the prices for pipes in Grimma.
All pipemakers copied the Dutch pipes and used for the largest part the name of the Gouda master Frans Verzijl, on the heel was the "lion in the Dutch garden". The production range extended by changed smoke habits after 1800. Since the end of the 18th century, the necessary forms were made by a tin caster from Grimma.
Beside the locally made pipes, a multiplicity of Gouda originals were also found in Grimma. From a complaint of the pipemakers in the year 1799, it follows that pipes also came from foreign countries, particularly from Hessen, into the region. The production of clay pipes ended in Grimma in the middle of the 19th century.

 



Pfeifenkopf


Richly raised designed bowl, with portrait of Friedrich August III, Elector of Saxony, and of his wife Amalia, made by Johann Gottlob Kramerin Grimma, end of the 18th century
Tonpfeifenfragment

 






Claypipe fragments from the workshop of Johann Gottlob Kramer, Mühlgasse 7, end of the 18th century

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No. 16/2003, p. 113-116
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann: Clay pipes in Leipzig - (Provisional) Conclusion of a survey.
A very early pipemaker in Leipzig

The article marks the (provisional) conclusion of a series over clay pipes discovered in Leipzig into the 1990er years. Of importance for the pipe research in Saxony and in Germany is a recently discovered source, according to which Hans Thielmann is called in the year 1656 as a pipemaker of Leipzig. Thus he is the fourth-oldest well-known pipemaker of Germany. To summarize the total survey, it can be held that many pipes found in Saxony which were identified formerly as Gouda products, reveal themselves as due to Saxon makers. Under this criterion new finds both in Saxony and in Germany and the trade with Goudae pipes are to be regarded more critically than so far.

 


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No. 16/2003, p. 117
Gerhart Mattuschka: Pipemaker's shops in Leisnig

In the Saxonian city clay pipes production has been already in 1697 of economic importance, the beginnings however are still unsettled. For 1753 the presence of only one pipemaker is attested. By the end of the 18th century, the production increased. Pipe fragments found in Leisnig show a large similarity with models from the nearby rival pipemaker's places Grimma and Waldenburg. The pipes production probably ended around 1830.




 
Tonpfeife

Clay pipes from the Lichtenberggasse, mid-18th century.

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No. 16/2003, p. 118-130
Bernd Standke: About pipemaker's shops in Waldenburg (Altstadt)

In Waldenburg (Altstadt), an extensive and also qualitatively remarkable clay pipes production developed which only stopped at the end of the 19th century. The well-known pipemakers as well as numerous pipe finds from this place are introduced in this contribution. In spite of the difficulties with the Electorate of Saxony (from 1806 Kingdom of Saxony) and the resulting high transit duties, the coat of arms of the Elector and his motto seem to have been a popular motive on the bowls. Just like in Grimma one tried here to make the pipes more attractive and more salespromoting by imitating Gouda models (rouletted stem, pedestal stamp, bowl decoration). Two stem fragments identify Waldenburg (Altstadt) as one of the manufacture places of the so called Zapfenberg-Pfeifen.

 
Zeichnungen

Clay pipes made in Waldenburg in the 18th century
Zeichnungen

Clay pipes from Waldenburg with the mark "W" on the side of the heel

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No. 16/2003, p. 131-136
Walter Morgenroth: Johann Friedrich Böttger and the creation of his Meissen tobacco pipes manufacture

Boettger, the inventor of the European porcelain dealt also with the production of pipes as from 1706. First he produced pipe bowls in red-brown Boettgersteinzeug. From 1710 to 1712 he ran his own pipesmaker's shop in Meissen, which was led by Johann Mueller, a pipe maker originating from Wesel on the Rhine. Mueller had been active in Magdeburg and Bevern before.

Pfeife

Tobacco pipe in red-braun stoneware of Böttger, made in Meißen, 1712

In 1712 took the little flourishing workshop over, however he gave up the production in 1713 and returned to Wesel, where he died in 1729. In the pipemaker's shop, in 1712, long stemmed pipes were also made in red-brown Boettgersteinzeug. Because of substantial baking problems the attempt was not continued. From these pipes only two copies were kept.

 

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No. 16/2003, p. 137-142
Gisela Murken: Cultivation of tobacco and tobacco trade in southern Lower Saxony

Since the middle of the 17th century until far in the 20th century, cultivation, processing and trade of tobacco represented an indispensable source of income in southern Lower Saxony. Particularly the valley of the Leine around the places Northeim, Noerten-Hardenberg, Bovenden nearby Goettingen and the Eichsfeld are more near regarded under these aspects. In the Eichsberg the cultivation of tobacco is already proven since 1660. Numerous written sources are abundantly attesting, how 300 years long this branch of trade maintained itself in the region. It got over diseases, quarrels, commercial difficulties, tax increases and competition pressure of imported goods, up into the 20th century, when the cultivation of tobacco became unprofitable.

 




Tabaksfeld


Tobacco field in the Eichsfeld around 1930

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No. 16/2003, p. 143-149
Jorge Kulemeyer: Smoking pipes from the early Pottery of the archaeological discovery site Moralito, Argentina
Pfeifenkopf  


The clay pipes associated to the San Francisco culture can very accurately be dated from the second century A.D. Beside smooth models other were found with anthropomorphic ornaments. Hallucinogenic plants were smoked, whereby the thesis is set up that the motive of the bowl was selected according to the hallucination which can be expected. One smoked by the natives only in group and for ritual purposes.





Anthropomorphic bowl of the San-Francisco Culture in Moralito, 2nd century A.D.

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No. 16/2003, p. 149-152
Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler/Henry Toms: International terminology for clay pipe research. Part I: English-German

The use of foreign literature is hardly to be gone around when dealing with the strongly interlaced European research. With the translation of special terms difficulties soon do arise. These terms can be either common words, which in the clay pipe research have a special meaning which cannot be found in a usual dictionary. Or special word creations and/or modifications are concerned, which one looks for in vain in most dictionaries. Under these conditions misunderstandings can easily work their way in the translations, which later unnoticed will be continued. For this reason it is very important to arrange lists of the technical terms. The authors start a series, which first takes care of the languages from the countries with a traditionally strong research and therefore a large number of publications. The available first part of the international terminology begins with English:

International terminology of clay pipes

 

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New Finds

No. 16/2003, p. 153 f.
Gunnar Möller: An interesting Stralsunder finding - clay pipe stems as plastering undercoat

During the rehabilitation of the "St. Juergen am Strande" monastery at 41, Mönchstraße, in the spring of 1996, dozens of clay pipe stems came to day. The stems had been pulled on thin wire and attached matt-like to compensate unevennesses on the southwest side panel in the first upper floor, directly on the panes under the baroque plaster from the building time of the house (1753/54). Over this "levelling layer" one had fastened another reed matt to stick the whole on.
After information of the building workers the clay stems are to have covered approximately a surface of 1,2 times 1.5 meters. The longest stem fragments measure 43 centimeters, the shortest 4 centimeters, whereby most fragments are about 10 to 12 centimeters long. The retained mouthpieces, like also the remaining stem portions, do not exhibit usage traces. We thus deal with secondarily waste. To judge by the stem transcriptions, it could be Dutch makes or German imitations, whose respective place of origin should still be investigated.
The idea to use clay pipes waste as evening material for an uneven wall and/or plaster underground was surely more the exception than the rule; nevertheless this findings show impressively the large individuality and the imaginativeness of humans to supply waste for still meaningful use.

 

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No. 16/2003, p. 154-159
Daniel Schulz: Smoking - No Smoking. Pipe-smoker in the Schloss Ludwigsburg, Württemberg

In the Ludwigsburger Schloss, during rehabilitation works, graffiti of pipe-smokers were discovered dating from the construction period of the castle, around 1725-35. Pipe-smokers are represented with classical pipes - probably German craftsmen and associates - and pipe-smokers with floral decor pipes - Italian and Croatian craftsmen. On the building site, miscellany cultures melted together: not only top artists coming from Italy, Austria and Boehmen, but also simple craftsmen.

Zeichnung

Pipe smoker no 1, a Croatian
 

The pipes help to assign the various represented culture areas. From special interest is the caricature of a Croat. He can be identified at his typical floral decorated pipe and at his tie. After the numerous Croatian craftsmen and their characteristic ties, their settlement in Ludwigsburg is still today called the "Krawattendoerfle".

 



Zeichnung

Caricature of a pipe smoker

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No. 16/2003, p. 159-164
Maren Weidner: Clay pipe finds from the Reichenstraße in Hamburg

Among the finds a particularly high portion is to be clearly determined as coming from German workshops. For Hamburg, in the second half of the 18th century, the main supply places, beside Altona and Hannoversch Münden, were Wahmbeck, Großalmerode and Uslar. The accumulated occurrence of pipe stems with the names Knecht and Goebel is particularly remarkable. In addition to already frequent observations with finds in northern Germany, it is confirmed that the pipe makers in southern Lower Saxony and northern Hesse copied Gouda marks. The side mark "coat of arms of Gouda" is falsified into a divided coat with deepened point, so that the plagiarisms are well recognizable.

 

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No. 16/2003, p. 165-170
Wojciech Siwiak: Pipe finds of the 17th and 18th centuries from archeological sites in the area of Bydgoszcz (Bromberg)

Those pipes, mainly from the 18th century, were not imported, after their marks to conclude, from the Netherlands. Rather comes predominantly in question the factory of Roscin (Rostin in the Neumark), but supplies from Weißenspring are proved as well by stem inscriptions. The clay pipes and porcelain bowls, among which one from Tettau, attest remote trade of the city at the end of the 18th century.

Plakette  

The function of a small horn plaque with the picture of a smoker is not yet clarified.

 


Horn plaque representing a pipe smoker, around 1800, diameter 31 mm






Tonpfeife

Clay pipe with egg-shaped bowl found in Bydgoszcz, end of the 18th century

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No. 16/2003, p. 170-180
Natascha Mehler: Old and new about tobacco and tobacco pipes in Iceland

The overall view of written sources and the entire archaeological find material show that Iceland came in contact with tobacco approximately in the second decade of the 17th century for the first time. From then on, the tobacco consumption spread very fast by means of clay pipes on the entire island. The necessary implements, tobacco and pipes, came either on legal way by Danish trade partners or illegal way with foreign smugglers to Iceland. Numerous pipe finds make it clear that thereby products of Holland dominate; a large number of pipes came from Denmark but only few pieces could be identified as originated from England, Sweden or Germany.

Pfeifenfragmente

Fragment of a spurred pipe found in Viðey,
probably of Dutch provenance, about 1650-1675

 




Pfeifenkopf und Fersenpfeife

Pipe bowl of Johann Carl Christoph Pabst in Uslar (Ger.), 19th century, and spurred pipe of Johan Adolph Rømer from Nørre Sundby/DK, about 1800

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No. 16/2003, p. 180-189
Richard Gartley: German short clay pipes from excavations in the USA

In an broadly put overview, finds of floral decor bowls from the 19th century imported from Großalmerode and Uslar into the USA were presented. Beside usual motives (philosophers, Hercules, womenheads, Turks), effigies of American politicians and presidents are particularly interesting. They can be exactly dated on few years, since the popularity of the pipes was dependent on the career of the politicians. The previously accepted opinion, such pipes were rather smoked by slaves, must be abandoned.

Philosophenkopf

Philosopher head from the workshop of the potter John Tabor in East Alton, New Hampshire

It is proved that such pipes have been produced by American factories, which resided in Ohio, New Hampshire and Virginia. Native production was qualitatively worse, but the manufacturers could use the disturbances of the world trade due to the American civil war for their own benefit.

 

Gesteckpfeifenkopf

Bowl of enamelled stoneware from Großalmerode, with the portrait of a philosopher of the antiquity, found in Fort Sanders, Wyoming


Porträtpfeife

Pipe with portrait of Frank Pierce, American president 1853-1857, found in San Juan Island

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No. 16/2003, p. 190 f.
Martin Kügler: The certificate of Johann Wilhelm Dorn in 1777

For the first time a certificate from Grenzhausen (Westerwald) was discovered, signed by Peter Dorn, upper master of the pipemakers in the county at that time existing of Wied-Neuwied. The new companion, J.W. Dorn was born in 1756, became himself a master in 1781 and died already in 1796. He originated from a poor pipemaker's family and was a distant relative of the upper master. The document is a rare evidence of the life of a simple pipemaker in the 18th century.

Brief

zoom

Vocational training certificate of Johann Wilhelm Dorn in Grenzhausen, 1777

 

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No. 16/2003, p. 192
Natascha Mehler: A story about the several uses of tobacco

Some oral tradition reports that, probably in the beginning of the 20th century, a man treated his haemorroids with tobacco - and was successful.
 

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No. 16/2003, p. 193
Heinz-Peter Mielke: Notes about the production of clay pipes in Veneto

Beside glass pipes, made by glassworkers from Murano, in Veneto, clay pipes were also manufactured: in Chioggia, Bassano del Grappa and in Piazzola sul Brenta. One of these manufactories still exists today in Bassano. However, the production changed over to briar pipes.
 

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