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KnasterKOPF 17/2004

Content

Dear reader&.


Current minutes

Natascha Mehler/Martin Kügler:
17th session 2003 of the "Arbeitskreis Tonpfeifen" in Heidelberg

John Rogers:
Session 2003 of the "Society for Clay Pipe Research"

Fred Tijmstra:
The "pijpendag" 2003 of the "Pijpelogische Kring Nederland"

Martin Kügler:
Annual meeting 2003 of the "Académie Internationale de la Pipe"



Frontpage No. 17


From the Research

Rüdiger Articus:
"Es hat dieses artige Geschlecht mit dem Mannsvolck gleiches Recht" - Women and tobacco

Karl Baeumerth/Martin Kügler:
Materials for pipe baking in Marburg an der Lahn

Michaela Hermann:
News concerning the "Bilderbäcker" of Augsburg

Rainer Immensack:
Ulmer maser pipes

André Leclaire:
Small tools for the manufacturing of clay pipes in the collection of the Georges Borias Museum in Uzès/France

Katarzyna Meyza:
The manufacturing of clay pipes in a pipe maker's workshop in Warsaw at the end of the 17th century and in the first half of the 18th century

Barnabas T. Suzuki:
The supply of Dutch emigrants in Japan with clay pipes in the 17th and 18th centuries

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler:
International terminology of the clay pipe research. Part II: Dutch - German

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler:
International terminology of the clay pipe research. Part III: French - German

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New Finds


Gudrun Noll:
Gudrun Noll: Erfurts clay pipe finds

Bernd Standke:
Clay pipes finds in the "Toepferstrasse" of Grimma

Thomas Weitzel / Martin Kügler:
Clay pipe fragments - Reserve material on trash fields in Barenburg, part of Emden

Natascha Mehler:
Clay shoes - Boot pipes and other oddities of the the 17th century from Bavaria and Austria

Ralf Kluttig-Altmann:
A puzzling item from the handicraft of the pipe maker

Rory Dunlop / Natascha Mehler:
New clay pipe finds from Bergen, Norway

Martin Kügler:
Featherlight and "unbreakable", but only for no-smokers - Pipes from cellulose

Martin Kügler:
Pipes from chocolate

Wolfgang Cremer:
Prestige pipes of the Batak people in Sumatra

André Dehaybe / Martin Kügler:
Clay mining in Andenne

Martin Kügler:
Cabinet, pipe and silk ribbon - a birthday present from the year 1815

Elisabeth Huwer:
In case of a fall - Some good (?) tip to paste broken pipes together from 1748.

Rüdiger Articus:
An enigma about clay pipes

 

Reviews

J. van der Meulen: Goudse pijpenmakers en hun merken. Leiden 2003.

S. Paul Jr. Jung: Pollocks of Manchester: Oxford 2003.

André et Mariette Leclaire: Les pipes en terre Job Clerc. Bagnols-sur Ceze 1999.

Maurice Raphaël: La pipe en terre à Marseille. Nice 2003.



Book notification

Bibliography of recent literature


Notices

Communications and indications on sessions


Annex

Addresses of the editor and collaborators

Abbreviations

Adjacent domain of the clay pipe research

 


Rüdiger Articus:
"Es hat dieses artige Geschlecht mit dem Mannsvolck gleiches Recht" - Women and tobacco

A fundamental opinion for the older history of tobacco consumption by women is still hanging. Smoking, in particular pipe smoking, seems to have been considered superficially a male field, but for the time around 1600 women smoking and clay pipes are already mentioned in the United Kingdom and in Denmark.
During the 17th century archival, literary and also figurative proves show that in particular the women of lower and rural layers were smoking. Also among the home workers of the 18th century smoking just like drinking wine and coffee, going to the pub and playing cards seems to have been usual. Such forms of equality of behaviour concerning country-women and home working women are considered as a consequence of their possibilities of economic influence in the family. There are in particular many examples of smoking women for the 19th century in the area of Holstein.
At the end of the 19th century female smokers were nevertheless only found within the fringe groups of the country. What in this range in former days was tolerated or usual, became in the end of the 19th century the attribute of old persons and outsiders. In the 20th century it was precisely in the country that smoking by women was most strongly condemned.
In the aristocracy, the usage of tobacco by the women, preferably under the form of snuff, more or less intensive depending on the courts. In the middle class, smoking became less common among the women by all times. Remarkably enough smoking became already rather early in the 18th century an indication of emancipation for the women.

 
Family

Family of the attorney Hansen in the Kronprinsenkoog bij Marne, Gouache from the year 1796 by Niclaes Peters Hermanns Sohn (1766-1825).

 

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Karl Baeumerth/Martin Kügler:
Materials for pipe baking in Marburg an der Lahn

 
 

Here the so far not published biographical data of 26 pipe bakers in Marburg from 1679 to the middle of the 19th century are presented. The oldest documents are naming in 1679 NN Strack, a former soldier, who makes pipes, and in 1690 Daniel Petit. If nothing is known on these two, on pipe bakers of the 18th century one has exhaustive indications.
The material shows in a first analysis that many pipe bakers of the place Grenzhausen in Westerwald immigrated to Marburg. The names of Hunnius/Honnius, Caesar, Oster, Klauer and Merkelbach must be mentioned, which were partially in narrow reciprocal link. Immigrations from other places of pipe manufacturing such as Herborn and Allendorf remain rare. The best time which the craft industry seems to have experienced is between 1750 and 1800, but it never arrived beyond a regional meaning. The last pipe baker Konrad Oster died in 1864.

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Michaela Hermann:
News concerning the "Bilderbäcker" of Augsburg

 
 

During excavations which lasted from 1998 up to 2001, in Augsburg, Kitzenmarkt, in
the former garden of the Benedict convent of Saints Ulrich and Afra closed in 1803,
an enormous hole containing masses of earlymodern finds was revealed, among other things table commodities and structural ceramics, glass, architecture rests as well as handwork detritus of several branches. Also approximately 1500 clay-pipe figures (so-called "Pfeifentonfigürchen") belonged to the find and approximately two dozens of models in several conservation degrees, from the first third of the 16th century.

figures

Ill. 1: Augsburg, Kitzenmarkt 11, women in Renaissance attire.

It probably concerns in this case waste products of craftsmen or stock of traders. The contribution gives a first short overview of the most important types and their numerical partitioning. The main part includes approximately 600 statuettes of the child Jesus and 520 female statuettes in Renaissance clothing. Moreover in smaller number there are male figurines, pairs, riders, musicians, animals and saints. Beside many examples frequently current in different dozen similar copies, are there smaller outlays and particular pieces, perhaps "special productions". Thereby it is noticeable that the clay-pipe figures were manufactured with several degrees of care.
The quantity and the mixture of the find material, the special find circumstances in the garden of the probably most meaning convent in the kingdom city Augsburg and in particular the good dating possibilities by approximately 500 coins make of the Augsburg mass the most important of this category.
For this reason the extraordinary chance is offered here for an interdisciplinary study of this complex find, of which the possibilities are presented.

figures

Ill. 2: Augsburg, Kitzenmarkt 11, cither players, spinners and other woman characters.
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Rainer Immensack:
Ulmer maser pipes

Under the term of the Ulmer maser pipes we summarise the production of pipes made of several varieties (elm, alder, birch, maple etc.) in the city of Ulm as well as in a vast surrounding country. Thus the oldest archival document (1695) does not originate from Ulm itself, but from Geislingen.
Two basis forms differ, the so-called "Ulmer Kloben" with a widened angle at the lower surface of the bowl, and the Hungarian form with a narrow high bowl, which is always higher than the pipe neck. The bowls experienced special revaluation by luxurious assemblies, silver covers and chains. The scope of production is hardly understandable, since the trade was not organised in a guild and was frequently only exercised as a supplement income.


grahpic

Ill. 1: Ulmer giant pipe bowl from around 1800, 22,5 cm high,
on the side the Bavarian Principality arms.
 

bowl

Ill 2: Glance in a pipe maker workshop around 1835 with the different working steps: filing, drilling, adjusting and polishing.

 

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André Leclaire:
Small tools for the manufacturing of clay pipes in the collection of the Georges Borias Museum in Uzès/France

A collection of 40 stamps is presented, which are made of ceramics (clay) and metal for the pressing of marks on clay pipes. Those with pear shaped grip supplied stamps show rosettes, numbers ("46"), characters ("B", "AB", "TD") and can be assigned to pipe makers of this place by the comparison with finds of clay pipes from Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie.
The stamps must for this reason mainly have been in use in second half of the 19th century. Two appliances are further worth mentioning concerning the stem decoration of the workshops of August Benoit and Louis Bruies in Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie.

 

drawing
enlargement

Ill. 1: The clay stamps.

 

 

 

drawing
enlargement

Ill. 2: Utensils for the manual stem decoration from the workshops
of Auguste Benoit (above) en Louis Bruies (beneath).
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Katarzyna Meyza:
The manufacturing of clay pipes in a pipe maker's workshop in Warsaw at the end of the 17th century and in the first half of the 18th century


drawing
Ill. 2: The clay appliances for "German pipes".
 

By the renewed interpretation of a find in Warsaw proof can be provided that here too, in a pottery to the edge of the old part of the city, during two periods, pipe bowls were manufactured. Although only few examples of the production of the end of the 17th century are available, data can be won thanks to the recent copies of the first half of the 18th century. Accessories for the baking were found with protruding elements on which bowls were attached. Also the simple cupola kiln of the found rests can be rebuilt. It is characteristic that anyway the clay pipe rests from both periods come from ceramist workshops, which manufactured model bowls, but no clay pipes with passing through stems.

bowl

Ill. 1: Pipe bowls from the first half of the 18th century.
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Barnabas T. Suzuki:
Die Versorgung holländischer Auswanderer in Japan mit Tonpfeifen im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert

The supply of Dutch emigrants in Japan with clay pipes in the 17th and 18th centuries
Already in 1585 and 1600 the European pipe smoking nations reached Japan, but the empire remained to a great extent closed for the contact. An establishment of Dutch traders was authorised from 1613 up to 1641 only in Hirado, approximately 80 km north of Nagasaki, and was later removed to Dejima.


fragment of a pipe

Ill. 1: Kiseru from the excavations of the Dutch establishment in Hirado.


The excavations in the field of the two commercial settlements show clearly to the fact to that the Dutch, due to the lack of imported clay pipes of their homeland used of metal pipes (Kiseru), or more seldom of ceramic pipes (Oribe kiseru) developed in Japan. Clay pipes were still rare and precious and could only at the end of the 17th century be introduced in larger quantities in Dejima, when the production in the homeland had developed more entirely. This is clearly again reflected by the finds of the 18th century, since now clay pipes of Dutch origin occur in large quantities and Kiseru are only seldom found.

pipe

Ill. 2: Glazed porcelain pipe "Oribe kiseru" from ca. 1620.
 
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Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler:
International terminology of the clay pipe research. Part II: Dutch - German

The series which has started in the 16/2003 volume of KnasterKOPF is here continued with - beside English - the most important language in the international clay pipe research. More than 200 technical terms has been translated and described and simplify this way the use of fundamental literature of the Netherlands.

 

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Ralf Kluttig-Altmann/Martin Kügler:
International terminology of the clay pipe research. Part III: French - German

Rather unnoticed by the German clay pipe researchers, many contributions also appear in France and Belgium for the archaeology and the history of the clay pipe. To promote their reception in Germany, now the French version succeeds after the suitable lists of the English and Dutch technical terms.

 

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New Finds

 


Gudrun Noll:
Erfurts clay pipe finds

For the years 1970 547 pipe bowls and 3636 stem fragments had become preserved during parallel researches in the city Erfurt and the find circumstances were documented. The material shows a broad spectrum, however it contains no reference to the production of clay pipes in Erfurt itself. Among imported goods, we have a pipe of Reichard West in Mannheim from the third quarter of the 17th century as well as goods generally imported from the Netherlands.
Also in the 18th century clay pipes were frequently referred of Gouda, whereas clearly only a little supply of North Hesse and South Lower Saxony took place. The German type (Manschettpfeifen) is only once mentioned in the find material and gives up a special secret, since the suitable nine edges form of the bowl was found in Sweden.

bowl

Ill 1: Bowl with ornament from Erfurt.

 

pipe forms

Ill 2: Form for a bowl with ornament from Sweden.

 

 



mark
 
mark
 
mark
 
 mark

Ill 3: Marks on Erfurts clay pipes finds.
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Bernd Standke:
Clay pipes finds in the "Toepferstrasse" of Grimma

Because of the devastating tide, which stroke Grimma in August 2002, the house in Toepferstrasse 8 had been demolished. Clay pipe fragments could be saved, dating of between 1740 and approximately 1748, when the owner Johann George Graefe had become in 1740 citizen of the city and worked here up to its dead in 1783.
On the 24 pipe feet and the three roundbottemed pipes, under the used marks, we find a "crowned H" in two alternatives, the "wind mill" and the "jumping deer". A small area of the garden was secondary occupied by smooth clay shards, which were probably initially components of "cassettes". Nothing referred there to a kiln.


Ill. 1: Clay pipes of Johann Gräfe in Grimma, dating from 1740 to ca. 1748.



drawing


enlargement

 
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Thomas Weitzel / Martin Kügler:
Clay pipe fragments - Reserve material on trash fields in Barenburg, part of Emden

The clay pipe fragments landed in Barenburg during a period of approximately 20 years as collected dirt. All pieces were in the higher undercoat in approximately 10 cm depth and probably arrived on the fields with the domestic detritus of the surrounding city. A production of clay pipes cannot be proved in Emden; it was clearly simpler to import pipes from the surrounding production places of the Netherlands. The 43 finds which are seized in the catalogue indicate clearly on this approval. The predominating part is clearly to be identified as products of Gouda because of the marks and the bowl forms, whereby the part from the 17th century is very small.

drawing

Ill. 1: Clay pipes from Emden.
 
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Natascha Mehler:
Clay shoes - Boot pipes and other oddities of the the 17th century from Bavaria and Austria

The here exemplarily introduced finds of Amberg, Kempten, Salzburg, Passau and Nuernberg are so far the only representatives of their type in Bavaria and Austria. They stand clearly out against the many clay pipes found in Southern Germany, they are only seldom similar to well-known clay pipes of other parts of Germany and gradually crystallise their own "pipe tradition".

pipe

Ill. 1: Glazed pipe bowl with the initials PSML from Kempten.
pipe

Ill. 2: Fragment with a Turkish looking bowl from Salzburg.
pipe

Ill. 3: "Shoe pipe" from Passau.

Where the copies of Salzburg, Kempten, Passau and Nuernberg were made, can not yet be answered at the current state of research. It concerns a pipe bowl, which answers to new finds of Silesia/East Saxony, inspired by Turkish pipes, a green glazed pipe bowl with the initials "PSML" on both sides as well as two pipes with bowls like a shoe: in the piece of Passau the bowl is designed as a shoe, of which the point (the stem) is swallowed by a fish; the new find of Nuernberg is arranged entirely as a shoe (boot), with a very long point.

pipe
pipe

Ill. 4: "Shoe pipe" from Nuernberg.

 

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Ralf Kluttig-Altmann:
A puzzling item from the handicraft of the pipe maker

From the castle ruins of Burg Scharzfels near Scharzfeld/South Harz comes a special piece, which shows firstly no resemblance with a clay pipe. It is a 3 cm high bit of the wall of a thick hollow object of pipe clay with probably pierced oval section; the fragment apparently shows a diameter of less than 1/4 of the general diameter which must be approximately of max. 3.5 cm.
The facetted outside surface and the highest side of the fragment show three marks ("jumping horse", "lily", "trompeteer"?) partially several times imprinted. Vertical, slanting and horizontal "edge lines" arrange the surfaces in picture regions, which contain the different marks. The attribution to the Netherlands of this object of second half of the 18th century dates must be excluded. As to the the function it can be thought of a toy, but it can be also the rest of a oversized pipe for publicity purposes.

 



item
enlargement

Ill. 1: The puzzling item of Burg Scharzfels in Harz.
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Rory Dunlop / Natascha Mehler:
New clay pipe finds from Bergen, Norway

 

Faience-shard

Ill. 1: Faience shard with representation of a smoker.
 

Finds of three excavations in Bergen are presented. Since the production in Norway starts only late, the clay pipes were imported mainly up to 1752 from the Netherlands, as the find spectrum also shows. Emphasis must be laid on a shard of faience with the representation of a pipe smoker, which must have been manufactured by 1700, and of which the origin is though still unknown.

zoom

 

 
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Martin Kügler:
Featherlight and "unbreakable", but only for no-smokers - Pipes from cellulose

In Ransbach-Baumbach, which are the last important production places for clay pipes in Germany, a company has developed a new procedure to replace the traditional clay pipe for "Weckmänner" and "Stutenkerle" by pipes of cellulose. The advantages of the new pipes speak for themselves: they are of a cheap raw material, entirely automatically manufactured, shock-proof, very light, up to 300 degrees celsius heatproof and after use biologically degradable. Only smoking is impossible with those pipes, because the heat of burning tobacco would cook the head off. But the children who get "Weckmänner" and "Stutenkerle" are not supposed to smoke, and the small pipes are also further suitable to make soap blisters. And this is also for the archaeologists a lucky circumstance, since the clay pipe smokers remain this way true to their smoke convenience.

Ill. 1 + 2: Plastic pipes - deceivingly real.
pipes

Ill. 1


 

pipes

Ill. 2
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Martin Kügler:
Pipes from chocolate

An item offered for sale in the USA as "pipe form with articulation" that after the acquisition effectively proved a pipe form, had apparently not served for the production of clay pipes.


pipe forms

Ill. 1: Pipe forms for chocolate pipes of Anton Reiche.
 

In the two half forms a small roundbottemed pipe with 10.5 cm long smooth stem is left empty. The half forms are linked at the head from the outside by a separate made articulation so that they always can be adapted. The form, which was manufactured by the company Anton Reiche in Dresden around 1900 is though no tool for clay pipe production, but served for the production of chocolate pipes.
.

pipe forms

Ill. 2: Pipe forms for chocolate pipes of Anton Reiche.
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Wolfgang Cremer:
Prestige pipes of the Batak people in Sumatra

To the most striking products of yellow - or brass melters belong certainly the prestige pipes of the Batak people, which the Bataks call "tulpang". These prestige pipes are characterised by a rich ornament such as knotted rings, rosettes, rocaille and volute form, rafter form. The stem of these pipes, frequently more than 50 cm long, is generally made from different pieces, which can be taken out. As a result of the expensive hand work they were always a status symbol of highplaced persons.

Pipe

Ill. 1: Prestige Batak pipe around 1900.

 

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André Dehaybe / Martin Kügler:
Clay mining in Andenne

Maurice de Bois (1907-1980) in Andenne have run up to the year 1960 one of the last clay mine, which also produced the white baking clay ("derle" in French) suitable for clay pipes. During its captivity in Hamburg-Fischbeck he drafted, in 1944, a remarkable document on a small notebook about his company. This contribution, "L'industrie plastique à
Andenne" includes 24 pages of which a couple are published here.


Ill.1: Frontpage of the notebook of Maurice de Bois.
 
  Frontpage

 

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Martin Kügler:
Cabinet, pipe and silk ribbon - a birthday present from the year 1815

Cabinet, pipe and silk ribbon

 


At a sale by auction the author succeeded to acquire a small ensemble, composed by a clay pipe, a silk ribbon and a small box. Whereas the small box and the silk ribbon are both of 1815, the pipe bowl is 34 years younger. Nevertheless the accession can be considered as original because the three family objects had been kept together since the middle of the 19th century. The owner was the merchant Johann George Ludwig Blechschmidt (1774-1866) in Holzminden. The porcelain pipe of 1849, which is embellished with the name Blechschmidt under a Lyra and 46 names, indicates him as a member of the "Holzmindener Liedertafel", a male choir.

 


Ill. 1: The ensemble.
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Elisabeth Huwer:
In case of a fall - Some good (?) tip to paste broken pipes together from 1748

Two sources were presented : a recipe from 1748 for the pasting of broken clay pipes and a summary of valuable information on clay pipes for traders from 1763.

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Rüdiger Articus:
An enigma about clay pipes

In a magic's book of 1718 there was a riddle, how to arrange three pipe stems in such a way that they keep themselves reciprocally high. Beside the detailed described solution a small picture is also added.

The solution of the riddle.

 

 

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